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Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes mellitus, known in short as diabetes is considered to be a lifelong, chronic condition which affects the body’s capability to use energy derived from food. Three major types are common, namely, Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes. But the first two are the most commonly affected ones.

Difference between Type 1 & 2 diabetes

  • Type-1 diabetes: Overview, causes, symptoms and treatments

It is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes and was once referred to as juvenile-onset diabetes since it occurred during childhood and an autoimmune condition. In this case, the body is found to attack with antibodies its own pancreas. Insulin is not produced by the damaged pancreas.

It might occur due to genetic predisposition as well as faulty beta cells within the pancreas, which produces insulin normally.

Several medical risks are associated with this type, with most of them arising from damage caused tiny blood vessels within the eyes (diabetic retinopathy), kidneys (diabetic nephropathy) and nerves (diabetic neuropathy). It may also lead to stroke and heart disease.

Treatment for this type includes taking insulin, injecting it through the skin within fatty tissue located below. The different insulin injecting methods are:

  • Syringes
  • Jet injectors using high-pressure air for sending through the skin insulin spray.
  • Insulin pens using pre-filled cartridges & fine needle.
  • Insulin dispensable insulin pumps pushed to catheter under abdomen skin through flexible tubing.

With the A1C blood test, a periodic test taken helps to estimate glucose level present in blood in the last three months. Also, overall glucose level can be identified and complication risks arising from diabetes and organ damage is controlled.

Significant lifestyle changes needed in type-1 diabetes:

  • Regular exercise
  • Proper meal planning
  • Frequent blood sugar level testing
  • Taking insulin including other medicine used to control blood sugar levels like Toujeo.

Monitoring carefully the glucose level can help people to enjoy active, long and normal lives.

  • Type-2 diabetes: Overview, causes, symptoms and treatments

It is rather the most common form accounting to about 95% of all diabetes cases across the globe. It was known as adult-onset diabetes and non-insulin dependent diabetes. However, with obesity on the rise, even kids and teenagers develop this type. Although a milder form, still cause significant health issues, especially within the tiniest blood vessels present in the body, which nourishes the eyes, nerves and the kidneys. There are also chances of increased risk of stroke and heart disease. Usually, some insulin is produced by the pancreas. However, the body’s cells become resistant to it or the produced amount is not sufficient to meet the body’s requirements. Lack of sensitivity towards insulin or insulin resistance occurs mainly in muscle cells, liver and fat.

Obese people, especially those found to be 20% more than ideal body weight is more prone to develop this disease. They are likely to develop problems of insulin resistance which will lead to the pancreas doing overtime production of insulin. Still, sufficient insulin is not produced to keep normal sugar levels in the body.

It is possible to control type-2 diabetes with proper nutrition, weight management and regular exercise. But this form of diabetes has a tendency to progress. Hence, medications will be required. A1C test is needed which estimates the average levels of glucose in blood in the last three months. The doctor may advise periodic A1C testing is done several times a year to find out how well the medications, exercise and diet work to prevent organ damage and control blood sugar.

Alternative treatments

Few studies have revealed that there are present ‘natural’ or alternative treatments which can help control glucose levels in blood in people suffering from this disease. It also can help to prevent its complications and conditions. The home remedies may include dietary supplements or herbs. Some examples include magnesium, ginseng, chromium, aloe vera, alpha-lipoic acid, cinnamon and garlic. However, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) did not find any clear evidence of non-herbal like mineral or vitamin and herbal supplementation curing diabetes of any type. Moreover, routine supplementation of antioxidants like carotene, vitamins C & E are not advised because of long term safety concerns and lack of evidence with regards to efficacy.

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